Biomedical Imaging and Sensing
Biomedical imaging and sensing aim to detect, measure, and visualize biological systems. Biomedical imaging and sensing technologies play important roles in life science, healthcare, environmental sensing, and security. A typical imaging/sensing system consists of biosensors, signal analysis module, and user interface. The development of novel bio-sensing technologies requires highly collaborative and multidisciplinary interactions between engineers, medical doctors, life scientists, materials, chemical and physical sciences.
Communications, Networking, Signal and Image Processing
Communication and signal processing technologies are closely intertwined and together they form a basis of modern communication and information engineering. With the advancement of high performance computers and other computing hardware, signal and image processing technologies provide significant supports to various signal analysis tasks in the development and improvement of wired and wireless communication systems in last decades. Signals of interest range from one dimension to multiple dimensions, such as audio, image, video, and four-dimensional medical images. The application fields include but not limited to communications, computer vision, multimedia, biomedical imaging, remote sensing, avionics, and sonar techniques.
Much discussion has gone into understanding the historical influences that have created the engineering profession as we know it today. Combined with this are the ongoing issues and challenges that are shaping the future of engineering. It was stated in a recent report from the National Academy of Engineering entitled, Educating the Engineer of 2020, that "Scientific and engineering knowledge presently doubles every ten years. This geometric growth rate has been reflected in an accelerating rate of technological introduction..." Against this background, engineering has evolved into becoming a driving force in innovation, higher education, and an ever increasing standard of living.
Ferromagnetic materials such as iron, cobalt, and nickel can become strongly magnetized in the presence of a relatively weak applied magnetic field due to the internal realignments of the atomic magnetic moments within the crystal. If this alignment is complete throughout the material, a large attractive force results between the field and the material. Removing the applied field will cause the realignment to collapse due to thermal agitation and the bulk material to demagnetize. Using this basic magneto-static principle along with circuit design and mechanical enhancements, engineers have made self-contained units that can produce motion (motors) or generate electrical energy from other forms of energy (AC and DC generators). These devices are found almost everywhere; in elevators, automobiles, audio systems, long-haul power distribution, aircraft, subways, emergency back-up systems, etc.
This area of electrical engineering deals with the theory of converting measurable quantities, such as temperature, light intensity, magnetic fields, mechanical strain into electrical signals via sensors. Once in an electrical format, the signals are conditioned to optimize electrical voltage or current, then digitized (converted into binary signals) and finally analyzed through data acquisition hardware and computer software. This process may be made more difficult due to communications constrains and sensor limitations. Navigation systems, interplanetary probes and earthquake detection are heavily dependent upon instrumentation principles.